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C. FERREIRA, 2002 (Terms of Use) ISBN: 9729589054

Gene Expression Programming: Mathematical Modeling by an Artificial Intelligence

Gene duplication
Gene duplication plays an important role in protein evolution. Although the mechanism of gene duplication is unknown, occasionally a gene is copied twice during replication. This kind of transformation is potentially harmless and may be advantageous if the protein produced is needed in large amounts. On the other hand, with time, the two copies of the gene might start to evolve independently. One copy may continue to express the original protein, but the other may evolve into an entirely different protein.

In GEP, occasionally, genes are also duplicated. Although there is no special operator for gene duplication, a gene might get duplicated through the combined effects of gene transposition and recombination. Interestingly, chromosomes with duplicated genes are commonly found among the best individuals of GEP populations.

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