In all the problems presented in this work, individuals were selected according to fitness by
roulette wheel sampling  coupled with the cloning of the best individual (simple elitism). A preliminary study of different selection schemes
(roulette wheel selection with and without elitism, tournament selection with and without elitism, and various kinds of deterministic selection with and without elitism) suggests that there is no appreciable difference between them as long as the cloning of the best individual is guaranteed (results not shown). Some schemes perform better in one problem, others in another. However, for more complex problems it seems that
roulette wheel selection with elitism is best.