|The flowchart of a gene expression algorithm (GEA) is shown in
Figure 1. The process begins with the random generation of the chromosomes of the initial population. Then the chromosomes are expressed and the fitness of each individual is evaluated. The individuals are then selected according to fitness to reproduce with modification, leaving progeny with new traits. The individuals of this new generation are, in their turn, subjected to the same developmental process: expression of the genomes, confrontation of the selection environment, and reproduction with modification. The process is repeated for a certain number of generations or until a solution has been found.
Figure 1. The flowchart of a gene expression algorithm.
Note that reproduction includes not only replication but also the action of genetic operators capable of creating genetic diversity. During replication, the genome is copied and transmitted to the next generation. Obviously, replication alone cannot introduce variation: only with the action of the remaining operators is genetic variation introduced into the population. These operators randomly select the chromosomes to be modified. Thus, in GEP, a chromosome might be modified by one or several operators at a time or not be modified at all. The details of the implementation of GEP operators are shown in